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INMA: “Weight gain during pregnancy and infant contamination”

All babies come into the world with a load of pollutants that comes from those accumulated in their mother’s body. It has been observed that, in addition to the maternal contamination load, one of the factors that influences this transfer is gestational weight gain. In an article published this year in Environmental Research by IDAEA-CSIC, ISGlobal and Biodonostia [1], it is described that in cases of low weight gain, a higher concentration of organochlorine contaminants is found in colostrum. The recommended weight gain is that indicated by the US Institute of Medicine (IOM) [2] and depends on the body mass index at the beginning of pregnancy. These are values of 12.6-18 kg, 11.25-15.75 kg, 6.75-11.25 kg and 4.94-9.0 kg of weight gain throughout pregnancy for mothers with a low, normal, overweight or obese index, respectively.

The described study has been conducted on the INMA (Childhood and Environment) cohort (reference hospitals of Sabadell and Gipúzcoa), where 376 paired samples of maternal venous blood and colostrum (initial breast milk after childbirth) were collected. Gestational weight gain was calculated using several different criteria that did not lead to significant changes in the statistical significance of the results. Individual and socioeconomic data of the mothers (educational level, social class, tobacco consumption, previous breastfeeding, place of birth) were also collected to eliminate possible confounding factors in the dependence of this weight gain.

The concentrations of the organohalogen compounds in the studied mothers were comparable to the usual ones in other populations of uncontaminated areas in equivalent times. Both in the case of the concentrations of organohalogen compounds in cord blood and colostrum, it was observed, in general, that the lower the weight increase, the higher the concentrations of these compounds were found, specifically polychlorobiphenyls, and 4,4′-DDE , which is a metabolite of DDT. The use of these compounds has long been banned, but they are still present in virtually all humans due to their persistence.

The means of the proportions of organohalogen compounds in colostrum:serum correlated significantly with physical-chemical properties such as the octanol-water partition coefficient (Kow), the higher the coefficient, the greater the relative amount in colostrum. This fact is consistent with changes in fat levels during pregnancy that influence the mobilization of these pollutants.

Other properties such as molecular weight also showed remarkable consistency with the mean ratio of organohalogen compounds in the colostrum:serum ratio. This suggests that the molecular size can also modify the transport capacity of these pollutants due to the permeability of the membranes.

The results of this study indicate that gestational weight gain influences the accumulation of organohalogen compounds in colostrum. The IOM recommendations for this weight gain may have clinical value in primary care because they provide guidance for reducing concentrations of organohalogen compounds in infants.

References:
– Grimalt JO, Garí M, Santa-Marina L, Ibarluzea J, Sunyer J. Influence of gestational weight gain on the organochlorine pollution content of breast milk. Environ Res. 2022 Jun;209:112783.
Link to the scientific article: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/35074353/
– IOM. http://iom.edu/Reports/2009/Weight-Gain-During-Pregnancy-Reexamining-the-Guidelines


Cardiometabolic -
Postnatal growth and Obesity -


Early- childhood BMI trajectories in relation to preclinical cardiovascular measurements in adolescence

Montazeri P, Fossati S, Clemente DBP, Cirugeda L, Elosua R, Fernández-Barrés S, Fochs S, Garcia-Esteban R, Marquez S, Pey N, Nawrot TS, Vrijheid M. Early- childhood BMI trajectories in relation to preclinical cardiovascular measurements in adolescence. J Dev Orig Health Dis. 2022-2021 Jul 26:1-8. Epub ahead of print. PMID: 34308826


Metals -
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Entorno urbano y Verdor -
Neurodevelopment -


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Anabitarte A, Ibarluzea J, García-Baquero G, Santa Marina L, Fernández-Somoano A, Tardón A, Nieuwenhuijsen M, de Castro M, Dadvand P, Lertxundi A. Effects of residential greenness on attention in a longitudinal study at 8 and 11-13 years. Environ Res. 2022 Jul;210:112994. PMID: 35227672


Neurodevelopment -
Social inequalities -


Poverty, social exclusion, and mental health: the role of the family context in children aged 7-11 years INMA mother-and-child cohort study

González L, Estarlich M, Murcia M, Barreto-Zarza F, Santa-Marina L, Simó S, Larrañaga MI, Ruiz-Palomino E, Ibarluzea J, Rebagliato M. Poverty, social exclusion, and mental health: the role of the family context in children aged 7-11 years INMA mother-and-child cohort study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2022-2021 Jul 26. Online ahead of print. PMID: 34312704


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van den Bosch M, Basagaña X, Mudu P, Kendrovski V, Maitre L, Hjertager Krog N, Aasvang GM, Grazuleviciene R, McEachan R, Vrijheid M, Nieuwenhuijsen MJ. Green CURIOCITY: a study protocol for a European birth cohort study analysing childhood heat-related health impacts and protective effects of urban natural environments. BMJ Open. 2022 Jan 24;12(1):e052537. PMID: 35074814


Persistent organic compounds -
Postnatal growth and Obesity -


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Stratakis N, Rock S, La Merrill MA, Saez M, Robinson O, Fecht D, Vrijheid M, Valvi D, Conti DV, McConnell R, Chatzi VL. Prenatal exposure to persistent organic pollutants and childhood obesity: A systematic review and meta-analysis of human studies. Obes Rev. 2022 Jan;23 Suppl 1:e13383. PMID: 34766696


No persistent organic compounds -
Postnatal growth and Obesity -


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Montazeri P, Fossati S, Warembourg C, Casas M, Clemente DBP, Garcia-Esteban R, Nawrot TS, Vrijheid M. Prenatal exposure to phthalates and phenols and preclinical vascular health during early adolescence. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2022 Mar;240:113909. PMID: 34952328


Nutrition -
Postnatal growth and Obesity -


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Stratakis N, Siskos AP, Papadopoulou E, Nguyen AN, Zhao Y, Margetaki K, Lau CE, Coen M, Maitre L, Fernández-Barrés S, Agier L, Andrusaityte S, Basagaña X, Brantsaeter AL, Casas M, Fossati S, Grazuleviciene R, Heude B, McEachan RR, Meltzer HM, Millett C, Rauber F, Robinson O, Roumeliotaki T, Borras E, Sabidó E, Urquiza J, Vafeiadi M, Vineis P, Voortman T, Wright J, Conti DV, Vrijheid M, Keun HC, Chatzi L. Urinary metabolic biomarkers of diet quality in European children are associated with metabolic health. Elife. 2022 Jan 25;11:e71332. PMID: 35076016


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